This tool provides the Analog-to-Digital Converter resolution and the digital value for an analog signal input to a 12-bit ADC.

Enter:

- Input Voltage Vin
- Reference Voltage Vref
- Number of bits

**Formula for 12-bit ADC**

The analog resolution or the smallest value that can be measured by the ADC is given by the formula:

**(V _{ref})/2**

^{12}

where

**V**is the reference voltage_{ref}

The digital output from an ADC is given by the following formula for a **12-bit** ADC.

**Digital output = 2 ^{12} * (V_{in})/(V_{ref})**

where

**Vin**is the analog input**Vref**is the analog reference

**Example Calculation for 12-bit ADC**

For example, if an 12-bit ADC has a reference voltage (Vref) of 5V, the smallest change it can detect (quantum) is Vref / 2^{12} = 5V / 4096 ≈ 1.22 mV. This means each step of the digital output corresponds to a change of about 1.22 mV in the input signal.

Analog input voltage of 1 Volt gives a digital output level of 1100110011.

**Background**

**What is a 12-bit ADC?**

An 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is a device that converts analog signals into digital signals. The “12-bit” part refers to the resolution of the ADC, meaning it can produce 2^{12 }= 4096 discrete values.

A 12-bit ADC is commonly used in applications where moderate resolution is sufficient and where a balance between cost, power consumption, and precision is needed. Examples include:

- Audio signal processing
- Industrial automation
- Medical instrumentation
- Consumer electronics

**Advantages and Limitations**

**Advantages**:

- Provides a good balance between resolution and conversion speed.
- Suitable for a wide range of applications.

**Limitations**:

- Higher resolutions (e.g., 16-bit or 24-bit) may be needed for applications requiring very high precision.
- Limited by noise and other analog signal integrity issues, which can affect accuracy.